Friday, August 7, 2020

This Is How to Spot a Lie on a Resume

This Is How to Spot a Lie on a Resume Lying on a resume is strongly unadvisable. And yet it is very common. You are not sure? Take a long look at your own CV.Okay maybe, you tried to be generally honest in your own bio. But how many exaggerations, half-truths and lies by omission can you count? Chances are it is more than 5.As counterintuitive as it is, recruiters are used to lies and can even be open minded to them if it is something they would consider insignificant. Just something sparing the ego of the job candidate.Interestingly enough, a recruiter may love catching a lie on a resume â€" it may give them more information what the candidate chooses to hide than what they choose to show â€" that is, if they catch it.REASONS PEOPLE LIE ON THEIR RESUMEGenerally, lying is a bad idea.First, it may render your entire interview pointless. Recruiters shortlist applicants for interview against strong criteria. If you don’t match it, you shouldn’t have been there in the first place.Second, it will establish a relationship of distrust. If you have lied about being able to speak Spanish, what else have you lied about? That is what the recruiter will think. They will be more suspicious of everything else you say, regardless of whether or not you have given them any other reason to doubt you.Third, it will immediately devalue your application. Once the recruiter is suspicious of your character, you can expect that will damage your reputation. You will not enjoy the same treatment as you would have, had you stayed honest.You may even expect a lower remuneration offer.So, why do people lie?To increase the chance of getting hiredOkay, so the issue is not entirely to blame on the job applicants. Most job offers are incredibly non-inclusive.A job offer or a job description should follow the logic ‘if you can do the job, we will hire you’. It must list the responsibilities, so that the future candidates for the position judge based on their abilities whether they can do the job or not.Instead, what we usua lly have instead of a job description is an applicant description. An applicant description follows the logic ‘if you can be that person, we will hire you’.’In order to apply, you must have an education in Accounting, a minimum of 2 years of experience, and a perfect fluency in Japanese’Applicants are trying to fit into molds that are very difficult to get into.And it often works. According to a 2014 study, quoted here by The Muse, ‘79% of interviewed business owners reported “they had hired employees with mismatched skill sets or who displayed underperformance on the job, despite the claims made on their resume.’To increase their chance of a higher remunerationAs unpleasant as it is, it is true.Your offered remuneration for a position could be fixed by a budget or it could be flexible. In case of a flexible budget the recruiter will offer you a salary based on the productivity they project you will have for your team.The recruiter will base their decision on your prov en history of success: the amount of employees you have led; the budget of the project you have managed; the amount of responsibilities you have had; the amount of time you have spent on that position; on whether or not you have education in the field.With so many factors, an exaggeration or two are usually allowed by the candidate. But those could be very dangerous, if you are caught in the lie.To avoid discussing a sensitive subjectIf a recruiter discovers an attempt to cover gaps in employment, it is more often than not because the candidate is uncomfortable discussing that period of their life. That may include:A mental problem. When overworking comes to bite you in the back and you burn out, you need a good break before you come back to the workforce, but you are worried that will be seen by your future employer as a weakness.A disease. When your health is not so good, it is not your favorite topic to discuss with recruiters. You will be seen as a potential flight risk, to no f ault of your own.Family time. When a mother or a father takes time to spend with the kids, the employer may question how much they prioritize their work to their family.THE MOST COMMON LIES ON A RESUMENow that we have established the many reasons why an applicant may lie in their CV, let us take a look at what lies are the most common and try to identify the profile â€" who would lie about that and why?‘Yes, I have graduated from…’Lying about education is the most common lie a recruiter will come across on a resume.Why?First, there is a lot of reasons to never graduate. Education is expensive. A lot of students try to juggle work and school and fail.Second, graduating college or university could be seen as a failure to manage a long term, expensive project.Third, and most important, failing school could be seen as lack of competence in your field.Younger people’s resume shows less work experience and therefore education would be relatively more important to recruiters. That is why younger people are more prone to lie about finishing their education when they haven’t.‘I am fluent in…’Two cases here and two reasons to lie:If knowing the language is a requirement, the candidate will often lie about their level of fluency in the language so that they pass the screening process. Then they will hope for the best for the interview, when they have a language check. Then you will get the excuses. ‘Yes, my Spanish is a little rusty, I have not used it in a long time…’ and then there come the promises. ‘I was actually planning to sign up for a refreshment course…’.More rarely you will get a candidate lying about being fluent in a language, when that language is not a requirement â€" just to come across as more well-rounded.‘Yes, I worked there…’An applicant will lie about their working history in the following cases:Case #1. They will lie about the amount of time they spent with an employer. More often than not it will be because things did not go well at the end. Perhaps the employee could not pass their trial period and was let go.Case #2. An applicant might have extended the final date of their working agreement if they were trying to cover up a gap. A long amount of time they could not find employment. They would not want to look desperate.Case #3. If it is their only relevant experience, they would want to inflate the amount of time they were employed in the field.‘My computer skills are impeccable…’More often than not lying about computer skills will come from ignorance. It is the Dunning-Kruger effect. ‘I don’t know what I don’t know, so I must be pretty smart!’When people are not particularly educated in a subject the chance is higher that they will overestimate their abilities more dramatically.Being able to check your email, to use a text editor and create a spreadsheet is not considered mad computer skills. When your experience with the Internet is limited to regular Google searches and pos ting selfies on social media, you are not an expert.It is usually middle-aged people who fall into this category.Learn more about the Dunning-Kruger effect by watching this video: ‘You could say I was almost the team lead…’Exaggerating the level of responsibility and contribution is another very common form of lying on your resume.That one is pretty harmless. Since it would have to be heavily supported by some acting work on the interview.The applicant would be trying to convince the interviewer of their importance in their previously held positions.It is very easy to catch, too. The applicant will continue saying ‘almost’. ‘You know I had so many responsibilities I was almost the team lead’, ‘I was also almost promoted’, ‘I was almost always the person to come and save the day’. ‘I was almost made responsible for the most important project in the company’.‘I was regularly employee of the month…’Lying about awards and accomplishments is common when an applicant has low confidence about the achievements in their CV.That is often the case with applicants whose work history is short not for lack of experience but for sticking with the same employer for too long.They are afraid of being seen as not ambitious enough. And they are worried their future employer may expect for them to be loyal without offering them progress or opportunities.‘I was generously compensated for my labor’Lying about your remuneration is perhaps the easiest lie to understand. If you are used to a particular standard your future employer will be more willing to offer you that higher salary.Moreover, your pay is often seen as an indication of your worth. It is easy to think the recruiter will consider you as a more valuable employee if you were better paid.Combine that with the fact that salaries are often a subject of privacy and are very hard to check even when you have a list of contacts for reference, and you have yourself the perfect storm.Obviously, a pplicants who feel were underpaid are most prone to lie about their remuneration.‘I am single. No, I don’t see myself as a parent any time soon.’Sad, but true. People who are planning to create a family for themselves soon will lie (often by omission) about their age, their marital status, and, when it comes to the interview, about their plans for the future.New mothers and fathers are unfortunately not protected very well by law from the employer when they want to spend time with their family.And even if they are, the employer will not always enjoy missing an employee for a prolonged amount of time, even if it was for a good reason.Women are more likely to lie about their plans for having kids.HOW TO SPOT A LIE ON A RESUMEBy now you must agree there could be many reasons for an applicant for a job to lie on their resume. Some are legitimate, some are toxic for the employer-employee relationship.Therefore, you must also agree it is still the job of the recruiter to verify the entire information about an applicant’s profile.They need to detect and deal with a lie, whether it is a harmless exaggeration or a significant deception.If a recruiter is serious about their research, there are easy techniques to verify if what they have been told matches the truth. This section of the article will tell you how lies on a resume come up most often.Skill evaluationAs easy as a piece of cake. Most lies come out during a simple skill evaluation on your first or second interview in person.You are fluent in Spanish, maybe you won’t mind verifying that via a short conversation. Or do you?You are a computer expert? Then perhaps you won’t mind answering several questions about this programing language that we use.The applicant will stumble and stutter and excuse themselves. They will say they feel very distracted today…To put it simply, the lie will come out and the interview will take a turn for the awkward. The applicant will feel embarrassed and the interviewer w ill know someone has lost their time.Social media researchA simple social media search will immediately speak about two qualities in an applicant. 70% of employers will use social media to snoop on candidates.First, the recruiter will immediately know how much they value their privacy. Most social networks will have protections against strangers stalking them. If they have not taken care to protect themselves their information will be publicly available.Second, the recruiter will notice how technically savvy the applicants are. The type of content they share, the type of images they post, they will speak of the character of the applicant.And a third, bonus point, depending on their social media habits and their level of privacy, hints may be available of the applicants’ working history and education here and there.Reference checkAt the end of the interview, the recruiter will ask the applicant about their reference list. It must be a list of between three and eight contacts that a re relevant to the candidate’s working history.The recruiter will use that to verify the amount of time the employee has spent with the company, their main responsibilities, the main qualities the company considered valuable with them. They will also try to verify their salary, but they will only be successful if the company has a transparency policy when it comes to remuneration.Even if it is a golden opportunity to catch a liar, reference check does not always take place. If the future employer is in a hurry to fill in the position, and if it is a job post with big employee turnover, they may not bother.NetworkingA reference check is not always needed. The higher the level of the position, the greatest the effort of the hiring manager will be to verify the character of their applicants.If the risk is too high, the hiring manager will call in favors from their friends in other companies to vouch for the person they are planning to hire.An innocent meeting to grab a coffee with th e wrong person can make or break your interview.Background checkIn some countries it is the practice for agencies to perform background check on job applicants.The investigators will perform a check on all facts from your resume that are publicly available and all that can easily be verified with an institution or an employer:Your graduation statusYour criminal recordYour medical recordYour or marital statusYour employment historyYour employment achievementsIf you lied about your education, your age, you having kids, or your reason to terminate your last labor agreement, you might be in trouble.Character assessmentA recruiter with years of experience will have developed a very strong intuition about when they are being lied to.Not only that, they will have knowledge in organizational psychology and will use various tools and techniques to assess your character, and particularly carefully, how honest you are being.They will ask you ‘trick questions’ to check if you are willing to step out of your comfort zone and talk about your flaws:What would you say is your greatest weakness?Can you tell me the greatest challenge you had during your last big project and how you overcame it?Can you list several shortcomings you felt you had when working with your last employer?How do you feel this interview is going for you?Pause too long, stutter before you talk, or say something too self-confident. Your bravado will immediately disappear and your recruiter will see right past your false self-esteem.WHAT HAPPENS WHEN A LIE IS DISCOVEREDOn the one hand, lying on resumes and on interviews is not the best way to go. They create an air of distrust during the interview, and, possibly, during the employment. In some cases, a lie on one resume may create future recruitment issues for you.On the other hand lying in one form or another is so common that recruiters and employers have become desensitized to it. They can be tolerant of one or two white lies here or there if the app licant seems to be overall a well-rounded person. And skilled enough to do the job.How do recruiters decide where to draw the line?How serious is the lie?In other words, the first thing the recruiter will consider is how far away from the truth the CV puts the applicant.An honest mistake to overestimate one’s skills is easy to look over. A good example is not being really good at a language that is not crucial to the position. A simple test will prove the level of fluency. The lie will not go too far. And maybe the candidate was honestly in the dark about how much their language skills have deteriorated.Lying by omission about education is also easy to go over. So you went through your courses but you never found time to write your thesis? That is not immediately obvious in your resume, but it could be overlooked.How brazen is the lie?Here are several examples where the hiring manager will cut you no slack. If you were:Coming up with a fantastic number about the salary you receive d with your previous employersAdding an education you never actually attendedAdding working history for employers you never worked forDramatically exaggerating your skills in a field that is crucial for the position you are applying forTo put it simply, the further your lies put you from being competent for the position and the more the hiring manager is convinced you are intentionally trying to mislead them, the less chance you have to get to job and the higher the chance for you to face some more significant consequences for your lies.Is the candidate a prospect?A brilliant looking resume, especially for a difficult position to close will raise the hopes of a hiring manager. When applications are rare each one is checked and considered with care. Good talent is rare to find.You do not want to submit a lying resume in such a situation. First, being one of several applicants, your lies will be more obvious. You will be discovered sooner or later.And second, you will betray the high hopes of your recruiters. Imagine they skipped on the chance to meet someone else because they were pursuing a meeting with you.You might be facing heavy consequences. If they were using a paid investigator for your background check, chances are high your name is entering a databased, labeled as a liar.CONCLUSIONA white lie or exaggeration here or there might easily be overlooked. But try not going too far.Have a very critical look at your resume today. How many of your claims can you cover by facts â€" diplomas, certificates, labor contracts?Are you really as good as you say you are in your listed skills? How marketable are those?Be critical. It is better to be honest with a more humble resume than to have a flashy CV and no job.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Pursuing The Social Work Field Of Education Essay

It took a long time and a lot of careful thinking to decide to pursue the Social Work field of education now. Although I attempted to pursue my Masters in Education 16 years ago, I discontinued that program due to the realization that I was not mature enough to keep balancing school demands along with my full time workload. Reflecting back, I was more pursuing my Masters for the purpose of pleasing my family considering I was the first female in my family to even graduate with a Bachelors here in the United States. Fast forward, 16 years later, I’ve concluded that furthering my education with a Masters in Social Work is the best match and fit to continue enhancing my career in social services. As a Mental Health Rehabilitation Specialist providing supported employment services, I support and guide my clients by taking steps toward their own career goals. I have found my purpose in life, which is to support transformation in others by connecting any type of community reso urce they may need in order to overcome their barriers toward their career choice. I have seen first hand how â€Å"work is therapy† and knowing that I supported and contributed to my client’s career plan, gives me the drive to keep enhancing my skills to impact my community even more. I am highly motivated to pursue a Masters in Social Work so I may have the access and ability to build and manage a team or organization that is just as passionate in supporting and guiding others. I’m also eager to provideShow MoreRelatedPsychology : Psychology And Psychology1630 Words   |  7 PagesPsychology is a very broad field of study and requires a lot of research when choosing a career. The education that is required for pursuing a career in the field of psychology depends on the type of psychologist you want to be. 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Like many others before me, I was not pursuing an emergency management career, I fell into it based on the skills I possessed and my interests. About six years into my career, I realized that although I was proficient in many of the specific functions I performed, I still lacked the bigger picture. I was not necessarily looking for a promotion or different career, but a broader understanding of how the various components fit into this complexRead MoreNew Mexico State University Is The Oldest And Largest Higher Education Institution Essay1028 Words   |  5 PagesNew Mexico State University New Mexico State University, which is referred to as either NMSU or New Mexico State, is the oldest and largest higher education institution in the state. This land-grant, research university was created in the late 1890s and is located in Las Cruces, New Mexico. The main campus is 900 acres and enroll over 15,000 students every year. There are satellite campuses in the cities of Grants, Carlsbad, Alamogordo and Dona Ana. There are also research centers in various locations

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Foreign Fighters The Islamic State Of Iraq - 1551 Words

Foreign fighters have been a staple of the modern wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. An interesting aspect of these foreign fighters in these conflicts is the amount of Westerners taking part in the insurgencies. The latest chapter in the war in Iraq is the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, which has become notorious in recent months for its brutality and its military successes. A recent Wall Street Journal article reports that over 28,000 individuals from eighty six countries have come to Iraq and Syria to fight for the Islamic State . Who are these Westerners who forsake a life of relative comfort and freedom for the rigors and danger of jihad? There are certain indicators in behavior of those who join the ranks of foreign fighters. While by no means a profile in any sense, the indicators observed by foreign fighters studied in this paper will provide policy makers and law enforcement with an idea of who could be likely to join foreign fighters abroad. Western foreign fighters ar e a major security concern for Western governments as they return home . The training and indoctrination they receive abroad makes reintegration into Western society difficult if not impossible. While every individual is different, all foreign fighters have observable behaviors prior to joining Islamic extremist movements. Learning how Westerners become radicalized is crucial to depriving groups like Al Qaeda and ISIS with valuable manpower. In order to understand the people who would joinShow MoreRelatedInformative Essay : Islamic State Of Iraq And Levant1131 Words   |  5 PagesInformative Essay on Islamic State Introduction Islamic state of Iraq and Levant (ISIL) also rendered as Islamic state of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), also known as the Arabic phrase Da’esh and self-described as Islamic State was formed in April 2003 but was established in 2006, growing out of al- Qaeda in Iraq. It has since been abjured by al- Qaeda. Isis has a treasury of 2 billion making it the richest terrorist organization also it has become one of the main jihadist groups fighting government forcesRead MoreWhat Is The Potential Of The Islamic State Attacks?767 Words   |  4 PagesWith the increase of Islamic State-affiliated attacks by radicalized â€Å"Lone Wolf† actors and dedicated Islamic State fighters, it is necessary to consider the potential for similar attacks in the United States. The November 2015, coordinated attack in Paris, France, and the January 2015, shooting in the Charlie Hebdo offices in Paris, demonstrated the Islamic States ability to coordinate complex attacks in physical locations however, the true measure of the Islamic States potential lies in its abilityRead MoreThe World s Biggest Terrorist Group1195 Words   |  5 Pagescreated in Iraq and is now slowly growing too many other countries in the world. This group is now one the biggest problems that the world faces today. Isis stands for Islamic state in Iraq and Syria. Members of Isis were first a part of al-Qaeda, then in 2013 became its own group. This paper will answer: How was Isis formed, and why is it the way it is today? â€Å"Under its former name Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (Isis), it was formed in April 2013, growing out of al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI). TheRead MoreIs The Threat Of International Security?1141 Words   |  5 Pagesvillages and cities. ISIS sees itself as the Islamic Caliphate and controls lots of land in western Iraq and eastern Syria. They also pledge allegiance from different radical Islamic groups around the world. ISIS started from U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003. Saddam Hussein fighters were left without a job, and they were furious. 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Policy Decision and Objectives: On September 19, 2017 remarks by President Trump to the 72nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly- â€Å"We must deny terrorists safe haven, transit, funding, and any form of support for their vile and sinister ideology. The Senate armed service committee on June 13, 2017 made a deliberation on how to dismantle violent extremist organizations such as ISIS and other Al QaidaRead MoreIslamic State Of Iraq And The Levant Red Cell Analysis1685 Words   |  7 PagesIslamic State of Iraq and the Levant Red Cell Analysis The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant has single handedly furthered the evolution of terrorism. This is a new type of terrorism that is not easily defined or visible. The Islamic States new form of terrorism has developed social unrest across the world and has undoubtedly inspired a new generation of extreme Islamic sympathizers to join the their cause and fight to accomplish their agenda of cultural cleansing. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Public Libraries Free Essays

The public libraries are generally refers as the ‘people’s university’ and are considered as agents of social, political, educational, and cultural change in any society and provide a wide range of readership than any other type of library. As a rule they are usually established by law and supported with public fund. Public libraries are seen as essential to the individual as well as communities they serve in general. We will write a custom essay sample on The Public Libraries or any similar topic only for you Order Now Without any argument, public library has become a learning centre where people can take part in learning activities, discuss and share knowledge and information. The responsibility of the public library is to ensure access of information for â€Å"the community regardless of race, nationality, age, gender, religion, language, disability, economic, employment status and educational attainment† (IFLA/UNESCO, 2001, p.1). Therefore, public library is meant to serve its users at no cost at any point in time and to do this effectively, there should be â€Å"quality information in terms of relevance, currency and accuracy that would meet and satisfy user’s needs† (Ikenwe and Adegbilero-Iwari, 2014, p. 2). â€Å"The main function of public library in Nigeria is the provision of information contained in books, newspapers, magazines, journals, audio-visual, and electronic resources to users according to their needs† (n.d, p. 6). In addition to provision of wide range of resources both physical and electronic, public libraries provide a variety of services that includes â€Å"digital lending material, reader development advice, internet access and support, information and reference resources and guidance, learning and eLearning activities, literacy support, cultural promotion and community development† (Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government 2013, p.4). These services rendered are targeted towards satisfying users’ expectations, and information need requirement of all types in order to encourage continual visit to the library. Consequently, user satisfaction is usually given priority by librarian, because it is a concept that has to do with how good users’ feels after visiting and using the library and their likeness to return back to that library when next information is needed by them (Olayemi, Olayemi, and Abolarinwa, 2018). Due to the recognition of the usefulness of public libraries resources and services, it is widely used because of its known ability to meet user’s demands irrespective of their status. Unfortunately, public libraries in developed and developing countries are facing a period of declining in usage as a result of poor funding and wrong perception among its users (Hood and Henderson, 2005). It is regrettable, to note that in Nigeria of today, public libraries including local government and community-owned libraries are not usually well funded and manned by unqualified professionals (Onatola, 2004). Another writer from the country succinctly asserted that there are â€Å"inadequate funding, poor staff development, illiteracy rate of the citizens’ high, outdated and irrelevant collections of the public libraries and lack of recognition on the part of government to know the importance of libraries (n.d, p.6). Hence, many users’ have developed poor perception of public libraries. To better understand users’ view about the public library, it is necessary to study the utilization and user satisfaction of Herbert Macaulay public library, Lagos state, Nigeria. How to cite The Public Libraries, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Los Tres Cochinitos Essay Example For Students

Los Tres Cochinitos Essay Una vez sobre una epoca habia tres pequenos cochinitos que salian en mundo grande construir sus casas. El primer pequeno cochinito tenia gusto de hacer ningun trabajo asi que hacia rapidamente se casa de paja y despues jugaba. El segundo cochinito no tenia gusto de trabajar tampoco que el construyia rapidamente su casa de palillos. No era una casa recio pero un trabajo era acabar. Estaba a ir el hermano que hacia una casa de ladrillos. El no importaba del trabajo duro. El sabia que un mal lobo grande vivia en las maderas y tenia gusto de comer pequenos cochinitos. Los otros dos cochinitos reia y jugaba. A fines de dia el lobo iba el casa de primer pequeno cochinito y hablaba, Pequeno cochinito, pequeno cochinito, me dejo adentro!El primer pequeno cochinito gritaba, No por el pelo en mi chinny-chin-chin!El lobo decia,Entonces yo arrebato y bocanada y soplo se casa bajo.El hacia y soplaba la casa de la paja abajo. El cochinito corria la casa de hermano. El lobo decia otra vez, Pequeno cochinito, pequeno cochinito, me dejo adentro!Los dos cochinitos decia, No por el pelo en mi chinny-chin-chin!El lobo decia,Entonces yo arrebato y bocanada y soplo se casa bajo.El lobo soplaba la casa de palillos abajo y dos cochinitos corria la casa de hermano. El lobo ira a tercer casa de ladrillos. El lobo decia, Pequeno cochinito, pequeno cochinito, me dejo adentro!Los tres cochinitos gritaban, No por el pelo en mi chinny-chin-chin!El lobo decia,Entonces yo arrebato y bocanada y soplo se casa bajo.El lobo no podria soplar abajo de la casa puesto que era hecha de ladrillos. El lobo era furioso y iba ababjo de la chimenea, pero era una caldera del agua hirvienda que soltaba respaldo la chimenea otra vez. El lobo nunca volvia. Los tres pequenos cochinitos nunca veia el lobo otra vez y vivia feliz siempre despues. Bibliography:none

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Woman as Leaders an Example by

Woman as Leaders Considerable recent research has been conducted that defines women as leaders manage or lead in a different way from the manners men do. Proponents of the women do lead in a different way proposition hypothesize that women intrinsically own or develop certain characteristics of personality that deviate penetratingly from male leadership uniqueness. For instance, Flynn (1994) developed a supposition that women are professed stereotypically as working from individual vulnerability and oblique power bases, whereas men are found as using strong antagonistic sorts of power. Need essay sample on "Woman as Leaders" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Till near past the general view about business administration was an arrangement subjugated by males whose leadership style was action-oriented, hierarchical, and also quasi-military. The superlative leader was viewed as a sovereign, sturdy, characteristic hero. However at the present a new cohort of women is carrying to business a style frequently explained as more consensus-building, more open and comprehensive, more liable to support contribution by others, and even more considerate than that of several males. The women leaders hardly ever or never gave orders; opting instead to encourage their employees involvement in decision making. Women leaders give confidence to employees to perform together towards the ultimate aims. The finding, female leader as a participative, employee-involved, team-based leader is harmonious with the recent research theories on female authority bases; none of the women refer to her position in the association as a stage for pressurizing nor she uses coercive authority. The considerable recent research led to the growth of a heuristic form of women leadership. This model distinguishes a woman leader as one who favors to function from a reward authority foundation. Under this model female leaders possess an elevated degree of employee participation that characteristically results in a team-based administration approach. In addition, this woman has entrepreneurial visualization, which she is competent to converse efficiently to her team members; this in turn provides as an unexpected inspiring strength to accomplish the objective of the association. (Patricia, 2004) Finally, these female leaders promote mutual confidence and value between her and her team members. Hence I support the statement that considerable recent research has been conducted that defines women as leaders and contrasts the results of female and male leaders. References Flynn, L.P., Shore, L. (1994), "Gender and context: the moderating effect of work group gender composition and occupation sex-type on work attitudes and behaviors ", Proceedings of the Southern Management Association, Southern Management Association, Valdosta, GA, pp.489-91. Patricia S. Parker, (2004), Race, Gender, and Leadership: Re-Envisioning Organizational Leadership from the Perspectives of African American Women Executives, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

The Prince and the Discourses on Livy Essays

The Prince and the Discourses on Livy Essays The Prince and the Discourses on Livy Paper The Prince and the Discourses on Livy Paper Essay Topic: The Prince Niccolo Machiavelli was at his time and continues to be now days one of the most influential and revolutionary authors known throughout the centuries. His writings, distinct from other renaissance authors of the epoch, make emphasis on his personal views and his opinions on the political matters taking place in Florence, Italy. Further discussed in the text are two of Machiavelli’s most renowned works, The Prince and the Discourses on Livy. Both books comprehend Machiavelli’s understandings of politics and explicit analysis on the various methods of governments with respect to principalities and republics. Machiavelli had many intentions in mind when he was first writing The Prince, among which where to understand, instruct and influence the minds of rulers at the time. More precisely, Machiavelli meant to influence the mind of one ruler in particular, the ruler of Florence Lorenzo de’ Medici to whom the book is dedicated. Machiavelli’s purpose throughout the book intended to help Lorenzo de’ Medici achieve eminence as a prince and guide him on how to properly rule Florence. The fist chapter of The Prince opens up by describing how many kinds of governments there are, in what manner they are given rise to and how they are later on acquired by states. Curiously, it is indeed, the first sentence of Chapter I which contains, what is perhaps, the most important discovery in Machiavelli’s entire writings from the Prince___ â€Å"ALL states and governments that have had, and have at present, dominion over men, have been and are either republics or principalities. Being introduced the topic on governments, Machiavelli proceeds to make an acquaintance on principalities and restrains himself to talk only about this one type of government___ â€Å"I Will not discuss here the subject of republics, having treated of them at length elsewhere, but will confine myself only to principalities. † Machiavelli argues that principalities can be either hereditary, new or mixed. Hereditary principalities are the kinds of principalities â€Å"where the governmen t has been for a long time in the family of the prince. The prince, in the line to succeed, is the natural heir to a perfect constitution on which to base his rule upon and for which people are accustomed. He explains that in order for the natural prince to continue with the good reign, is it merely enough that he accommodates himself to the order of things previously established by his predecessors and occasionally need to adapt institutions to the current events. Machiavelli argues that ereditary principalities are maintained with much less effort and difficulty than new or mixed principalities in reason that hereditary principalities, having made a fair beginning, have had the time to perfect its constitution and laws to assure security and bring content to all of those who live under its rule. Whereas in mixed and new principalities that rulers, having made a new start, may easily run out of time before having perfected its constitution and thus end up by destroying the state. In addition, Machiavelli argues that the natural prince was also liable of inheriting the affection of the people who had at other periods in time become familiar with he’s family. Thus, to the disadvantage of new coming ruler’s, the natural prince had on his behalf a natural disposition of the subjects in the hereditary state to love the ruling family. Finally, Machiavelli concludes his chapter on hereditary principalities by saying that â€Å"for each change and alteration always prepares the way and facilitates the next. In simple english, that in hereditary states the rule from prince to prince is facilitated by bringing on a change at different times giving people an opportunity to come familiarize at their own pace, while new or mixed principalities are obliged to enforce change in a flash. Machiavelli has overtime become a common adjective to immorality for he deeply believes that the main objective to politics is by all means to remain in power. Machiavelli thi nks of the virtue of the prince as the virtue of courage, strength and most importantly manhood. He argues that it if the natural prince possesses such extreme sagacity, he will always maintain himself in the state unless deprived by a superior force. Nonetheless, if the natural prince has reasons enough to irritate his subjects and causes himself to be hated, people will willingly trade him for another ruler in the hopes that the new ruler will be better than the present one. Machiavelli says that once the prince is replaced, the state is no longer to be considered a hereditary principality but be classified as a mixed principality. As Machiavelli had at first noted, new and mixed principalities are indeed much more difficult to maintain. For it is in new and mixed principalities that difficulties start to present themselves. Machiavelli states that mutations to form mixed principalities, in which men change their rulers gladly in the belief that they will better themselves by the change, arise from a natural difficulty. Unfortunately for the people, problems for Machiavelli do not stop here, for he argues that it is â€Å"an infinite number of other wrongs that follow in the train of new conquests. When the new prince takes over another prince’s domain, he finds himself in a delicate situation with regard to the people who put him in power and with those whom he injured by seizing that principality. He explains that the new prince has â€Å"for enemies all those whom he has injured by seizing that principality; and at the same time he cannot preserve as friends even those who have aided him in obtainin g possession, because he cannot satisfy their expectations, nor can he employ strong measures against them, being under obligations to them. Concluded then that, no matter how strong the new prince may be for he will always need the goodwill of the inhabitants if he wishes to enter into firm possession of the country. So far seen in the Prince, Machiavelli confined himself to talk only about one type of government, principalities. Yet, in the Discourses on Livy, he moves on to put forth what he had set aside in The Prince, republics. It is then, that he’s writings take a new direction leading the way to six forms of government not mentioned before. Whence, giving a whole new purpose to his second book which is to further explain and describe each type of government there are and particularly which will have the more benefits for any republic. It is important to note, beforehand, that the Discourses on Livy are considered to be Machiavelli’s concise commentaries on the history from the Foundation of Rome by Titus Livy. Hence, most of the discussions on governments in the Discourses on Livy will pertain to some extend the form of government in the Roman Republic. Reason for this is that Machiavelli thought of Rome as more than just the capital of the republic but rather pondered it as a source of inspiration and forth more his role model to a perfect government___ â€Å"Having proposed to myself to treat of the kind of government established at Rome, and of the events that led to its perfection. † At first, Machiavelli distinguishes three kinds of governments, the monarchical, the aristocratic, and the democratic. Nevertheless, after having read other authors, he makes account for six kinds of governments, three of which he classified as very bad, and the other three of which he classified as good. From Machiavelli’s conception that the three bad ones result from the degradation of the first three is the emergence of Machiavelli’s cycle of governments in which the monarchy becomes a tyranny, the aristocracy degenerates into oligarchy and finally the popular government or democracy lapses into licentiousness. Machiavelli argues that â€Å"chance has given birth to these different kinds of governments amongst men† for at the beginning of times there were no states nor governments but just free men and women wandering around. As the human race increased, the necessity for uniting themselves made itself felt. This necessity of which Machiavelli speaks is nothing more and nothing less than fear, fear for survival and desire for protection and self-defense. Thence, putting themselves into accordance, men agreed to choose the wisest and most just from amongst themselves and place him at their head with the promise to obey___monarchy. Sovereignty was to be hereditary and non-elective. Yet, short after, children began to naturally degenerate from their fathers giving up to extraordinary vices, libertinage, and violence. Consequently, the prince soon drew upon himself the general hatred of his people. It is then, that Machiavelli alleges that the prince as â€Å"An object of hatred, he naturally felt fear; fear in turn dictated to him precautions and wrongs, and thus tyranny quickly developed itself. † Growing discontent from the prince’s outrages and excesses caused armed masses of powerful leaders to oblige the prince to surrender the throne and further constituted by themselves the new government___aristocracy. The aristocratic rulers indisposed to remain content with the civil equality of fortune surrendered to cupidity and ambition. Once again, experienced the same fate as with the first tyrant, people resolved to place themselves at command___oligarchy. Short after, the generation of people that had at first established it passed on and the government ran again into that kind of license which inflicts injury upon the common public. Having overthrown the oligarchy a popular government was therefore resolved___democracy. Machiavelli concludes that these six types of governments are defective for the good are too short lived and no precautions can prevent either one from degenerating into its opposite kind. Because each individual in power consulted his own passions and thousands of acts of injustice were daily committed, the republic found itself in a position of constant disorders, conspiracies, and plots against its sovereigns. Fortunately, sagacious legislators, knowing the vices of each of these systems of government, decided to captivate something from them all and gave emergence to a type of government in which power was equally dispersed in three categories. The three categories where composed of the king, the nobles, and the people and each one had it’s correspondingly portion of authority and duties. Machiavelli argues that the republic depends solely on these three powers to maintain itself strong, stable and solid. For it is within this system that authority can be successively passed from the kings to the nobles and from nobles to the people. For a fact, he never got to provide a theory that justifies a form of government as the best form of government. However, we can induce from his writings that he thought of this type form as the most appropriate___ â€Å"organized the government of Sparta in such manner that, in giving to the king, the nobles, and the people each their portion of authority and duties, he created a government which maintained itself for over eight hundred years in the most perfect tranquility. Machiavelli reasoned that it is only when these three powers are combined under the same constitution that they are able to watch and keep each other in check. Consequently, with only one of the three elements of which we have spoken been omitted from it charges, the republic will most likely find itself vulnerable to disaster. Nonetheless, if the republic finds itself able to compe nsate for which ever element is missing, it will attain a perfect combination of powers and thus render the creation of the perfect constitution. Machiavelli was born during the times of Italy’s renaissance, during which Florence was at the scene of its most intense political conflicts. Conversely to other scholars at the time, Machiavelli did not obtain his knowledge through any particular education but through many years of experience. As testimony of the repeated rise and fall of various governments, Machiavelli was able to understand the dynamics of politics and power. He sought to describe political life as it really was, in order that politics should be regarded in the views on politics alone. Though Machiavelli wrote 500 years ago, his political world has much in common with the modern political world. Machiavelli was, indeed, far ahead of his time when he said that sharing power is absolutely necessary to the maintenance of the state and thus, governments should strive for the division of authority. In spite of its antiquity, Machiavelli’s first organization of the state is possibly today’s point of departure to many forms of government. In his analysis of the Roman republic, Machiavelli distinguishes three powers, the king, the nobles, and the people. Similarly, our government is also separated into the executive, the legislative, and the judicial power. Machiavelli’s insights on power, control and leadership are steeped in the realism of historical events thus, provide valuable guidance to the present leaders in the field of politics.